# calculations and questions 1

1) Different measures of disease are useful to evaluate and assess public health programs and needs in different situations. For each of the following questions, (a) state which measure would best support your goal and (b) explain why you chose that measure. To argue that mortality from HIV infection is a more serious public health problem in one region of the U.S than another. To argue that heart disease should get more funding than HIV.

2) An epidemiologist found five cases of big toe cancer in the Yukon Territory. Because there were only a few cases, the epidemiologist decided to conduct a matched case-control study to determine whether shoe size larger than 9 is a risk factor for big toe cancer. Each case was individually matched to one control for daily activity, history of athleteâ€™s foot, and history of ingrown toenails. The following data were gathered:

Shoe size > 9

 Case Control Exposure (Y): 2(A) 2(D) Exposure (N): 3(C) 3(B)

3) You are interested in controlling cigarette smoking among women aged 15-24. Describe one primary prevention approach and one secondary prevention approach you would use. Convey your understanding of the difference between primary and secondary approaches in the context of your answer.

4) You have just finished administering a food/drink questionnaire to ill and non-ill participants in a Minnesota summer picnic party. The ill individuals developed moderate to severe diarrhea 16 to 46 hours after the picnic. Six persons experienced vomiting. The following data were collected:

Calculate the Odds ratio for illness for consuming Lemonade.

 ATE DID NOT EAT Number of people Number of people Food item Ill Not ill Total Ill Not ill Total Hot dogs 40 30 70 10 20 30 Hamburgers 32 8 40 20 40 60 Potato salad 45 25 70 15 25 40 Ice cream 48 12 60 2 38 40 Lemonade 20 40 60 20 20 40

5) Select a disease and an exposure. It does not have to be one that is unique. However, for your choice you must select a study design, source of the data, potential limitations.