calculations and questions 1

1) Different measures of disease are useful to evaluate and assess public health programs and needs in different situations. For each of the following questions, (a) state which measure would best support your goal and (b) explain why you chose that measure. To argue that mortality from HIV infection is a more serious public health problem in one region of the U.S than another. To argue that heart disease should get more funding than HIV.

2) An epidemiologist found five cases of big toe cancer in the Yukon Territory. Because there were only a few cases, the epidemiologist decided to conduct a matched case-control study to determine whether shoe size larger than 9 is a risk factor for big toe cancer. Each case was individually matched to one control for daily activity, history of athlete’s foot, and history of ingrown toenails. The following data were gathered:

Shoe size > 9

Case

Control

Exposure (Y):

2(A)

2(D)

Exposure (N):

3(C)

3(B)

3) You are interested in controlling cigarette smoking among women aged 15-24. Describe one primary prevention approach and one secondary prevention approach you would use. Convey your understanding of the difference between primary and secondary approaches in the context of your answer.

4) You have just finished administering a food/drink questionnaire to ill and non-ill participants in a Minnesota summer picnic party. The ill individuals developed moderate to severe diarrhea 16 to 46 hours after the picnic. Six persons experienced vomiting. The following data were collected:

Calculate the Odds ratio for illness for consuming Lemonade.

ATE

DID NOT EAT

Number of people

Number of people

Food item

Ill

Not ill

Total

Ill

Not ill

Total

Hot dogs

40

30

70

10

20

30

Hamburgers

32

8

40

20

40

60

Potato salad

45

25

70

15

25

40

Ice cream

48

12

60

2

38

40

Lemonade

20

40

60

20

20

40

5) Select a disease and an exposure. It does not have to be one that is unique. However, for your choice you must select a study design, source of the data, potential limitations.

 
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